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Learn how to – How To Install MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

Learn how to – How To Install MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7.

In this guide we shall cover the installation, configuration and usage of MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7. MariaDB is a ‘drop in’ replacement for MySQL. At the time of its launch, it was 99.9% compatible, and essentially a branch of MySQL. But logically, over time, the two database management systems have diverged and now there are hundreds of incompatibilities between MySQL and MariaDB databases.

MariaDB is the default database solution in CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 Linux systems. This guide should only be used for new installations and not for upgrading from an older release of MariaDB server. Also note this guide is applicable for single node database server setups using MariaDB. If you’re interested in a highly available, multi-node deployment, consider using MariaDB Galera Cluster setup.

Some of the good features and improvements in MariaDB 10.8 are;

  • InnoDB redo log improvements – autosize innodb_buffer_pool_chunk_size and Improve the redo log for concurrency
  • Lag free ALTER TABLE in replication – ALTER TABLE now gets replicated and starts executing on replicas when it starts executing on the primary, not when it finishes.
  • Auto create partition – You can now use an AUTO keyword to inform the server to create more history partitions automatically
  • JSON Histograms – Histograms in the statistics tables are more precise and stored as JSON, not binary
  • Descending indexes – Individual columns in the index can now be explicitly sorted in the ascending or descending order.
  • Spider Storage Engine Improvements – You can now declare Spider connections using the REMOTE_SERVERREMOTE_DATABASE, and REMOTE_TABLE attributes and not abuse the COMMENT field for that.
  • mysqlbinlog GTID support – mariadb-binlog (previously mysqlbinlog) now supports both filtering events by GTID ranges through –start-position and –stop-position, and validating a binary log’s ordering of GTIDs through –gtid-strict-mode
  • Improved i18n support on Windows – On Windows 10+ systems, several problems with Unicode input and output in client were fixed
  • Stored Procedures INOUT Parameters – Added support support for IN, OUT and INOUT parameter qualifiers
  • And many Misc. features added as well

Install MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

The steps provided in this section should help you with the installation, configuration and usage of MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 Linux. The installation will fail if you have any other MySQL based database management system on your OS. Ensure the system is clean before you proceed with this guide.

Update and reboot your system.

sudo yum -y update
sudo reboot -f

Wait for your system to be rebooted then start the installation using the next step.

Step 1) Add MariaDB YUM repository

We’ll use official MariaDB YUM repository for RHEL based systems which is added by running the following commands.

curl -LsS -O https://downloads.mariadb.com/MariaDB/mariadb_repo_setup
sudo bash mariadb_repo_setup --mariadb-server-version=10.8

The script automates the process of setting up repository and importing MariaDB GPG keys.

[info] Checking for script prerequisites.
[info] Repository file successfully written to /etc/yum.repos.d/mariadb.repo
[info] Adding trusted package signing keys...
/etc/pki/rpm-gpg ~
[info] Successfully added trusted package signing keys
[info] Cleaning package cache...
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: base droplet-agent extras mariadb-main mariadb-maxscale mariadb-tools updates
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors

List all available repositories on the system

$ sudo yum clean all
$ sudo yum repolist
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: packages.oit.ncsu.edu
 * extras: mirror.facebook.net
 * updates: mirrors.tripadvisor.com
repo id                                                                                      repo name                                                                                          status
base/7/x86_64                                                                                CentOS-7 - Base                                                                                    10072
droplet-agent/x86_64                                                                         DigitalOcean Droplet Agent                                                                            11
extras/7/x86_64                                                                              CentOS-7 - Extras                                                                                    512
mariadb-main                                                                                 MariaDB Server                                                                                        84
mariadb-maxscale                                                                             MariaDB MaxScale                                                                                       4
mariadb-tools                                                                                MariaDB Tools                                                                                         16
updates/7/x86_64                                                                             CentOS-7 - Updates                                                                                  4050
repolist: 14749

Step 2) Install MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

MariaDB 10.8 packages are available on the repo we just added. Let’s install server and client packages.

sudo yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client MariaDB-backup

Confirm the version of MariaDB server and client packages being installed and proceed if okay.

Dependencies Resolved

 Package                                                Arch                                  Version                                               Repository                                   Size
 MariaDB-backup                                         x86_64                                10.8.3-1.el7.centos                                   mariadb-main                                7.0 M
 MariaDB-client                                         x86_64                                10.8.3-1.el7.centos                                   mariadb-main                                 15 M
 MariaDB-compat                                         x86_64                                10.8.3-1.el7.centos                                   mariadb-main                                2.2 M
     replacing  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.68-1.el7
 MariaDB-server                                         x86_64                                10.8.3-1.el7.centos                                   mariadb-main                                 26 M
Installing for dependencies:
 MariaDB-common                                         x86_64                                10.8.3-1.el7.centos                                   mariadb-main                                 81 k
 boost-program-options                                  x86_64                                1.53.0-28.el7                                         base                                        156 k
 galera-4                                               x86_64                                26.4.11-1.el7.centos                                  mariadb-main                                9.9 M
 libaio                                                 x86_64                                0.3.109-13.el7                                        base                                         24 k
 libpmem                                                x86_64                                1.5.1-2.1.el7                                         base                                         59 k
 lsof                                                   x86_64                                4.87-6.el7                                            base                                        331 k
 pcre2                                                  x86_64                                10.23-2.el7                                           base                                        201 k
 perl                                                   x86_64                                4:5.16.3-299.el7_9                                    updates                                     8.0 M
 perl-Carp                                              noarch                                1.26-244.el7                                          base                                         19 k
 perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2                                x86_64                                2.061-3.el7                                           base                                         32 k
 perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib                                 x86_64                                1:2.061-4.el7                                         base                                         57 k
 perl-DBI                                               x86_64                                1.627-4.el7                                           base                                        802 k
 perl-Data-Dumper                                       x86_64                                2.145-3.el7                                           base                                         47 k
 perl-Encode                                            x86_64                                2.51-7.el7                                            base                                        1.5 M
 perl-Exporter                                          noarch                                5.68-3.el7                                            base                                         28 k
 perl-File-Path                                         noarch                                2.09-2.el7                                            base                                         26 k
 perl-File-Temp                                         noarch                                0.23.01-3.el7                                         base                                         56 k
 perl-Filter                                            x86_64                                1.49-3.el7                                            base                                         76 k
 perl-Getopt-Long                                       noarch                                2.40-3.el7                                            base                                         56 k
 perl-HTTP-Tiny                                         noarch                                0.033-3.el7                                           base                                         38 k
 perl-IO-Compress                                       noarch                                2.061-2.el7                                           base                                        260 k
 perl-Net-Daemon                                        noarch                                0.48-5.el7                                            base                                         51 k
 perl-PathTools                                         x86_64                                3.40-5.el7                                            base                                         82 k
 perl-PlRPC                                             noarch                                0.2020-14.el7                                         base                                         36 k
 perl-Pod-Escapes                                       noarch                                1:1.04-299.el7_9                                      updates                                      52 k
 perl-Pod-Perldoc                                       noarch                                3.20-4.el7                                            base                                         87 k
 perl-Pod-Simple                                        noarch                                1:3.28-4.el7                                          base                                        216 k
 perl-Pod-Usage                                         noarch                                1.63-3.el7                                            base                                         27 k
 perl-Scalar-List-Utils                                 x86_64                                1.27-248.el7                                          base                                         36 k
 perl-Socket                                            x86_64                                2.010-5.el7                                           base                                         49 k
 perl-Storable                                          x86_64                                2.45-3.el7                                            base                                         77 k
 perl-Text-ParseWords                                   noarch                                3.29-4.el7                                            base                                         14 k
 perl-Time-HiRes                                        x86_64                                4:1.9725-3.el7                                        base                                         45 k
 perl-Time-Local                                        noarch                                1.2300-2.el7                                          base                                         24 k
 perl-constant                                          noarch                                1.27-2.el7                                            base                                         19 k
 perl-libs                                              x86_64                                4:5.16.3-299.el7_9                                    updates                                     690 k
 perl-macros                                            x86_64                                4:5.16.3-299.el7_9                                    updates                                      44 k
 perl-parent                                            noarch                                1:0.225-244.el7                                       base                                         12 k
 perl-podlators                                         noarch                                2.5.1-3.el7                                           base                                        112 k
 perl-threads                                           x86_64                                1.87-4.el7                                            base                                         49 k
 perl-threads-shared                                    x86_64                                1.43-6.el7                                            base                                         39 k
 socat                                                  x86_64                                                               base                                        290 k

Transaction Summary
Install  4 Packages (+42 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 73 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y

With the rpm command package details can be queried.

$ rpm -qi MariaDB-server
Name        : MariaDB-server
Version     : 10.8.3
Release     : 1.el7.centos
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Wed Jul 13 22:21:21 2022
Group       : Applications/Databases
Size        : 129149443
License     : GPLv2
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Thu May 19 12:55:05 2022, Key ID cbcb082a1bb943db
Source RPM  : MariaDB-server-10.8.3-1.el7.centos.src.rpm
Build Date  : Wed May 18 13:26:15 2022
Build Host  : centos74-amd64

Step 3) Configure MariaDB 10.8 on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

Start and enable mariadb database service

$ sudo systemctl enable --now mariadb
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mariadb.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service.

Check service status if it’s indeed running.

$ systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.8.3 database server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
  Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2022-07-13 22:23:07 UTC; 24s ago
     Docs: man:mariadbd(8)
  Process: 8189 ExecStartPost=/bin/sh -c systemctl unset-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 8163 ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c [ ! -e /usr/bin/galera_recovery ] && VAR= ||   VAR=`cd /usr/bin/..; /usr/bin/galera_recovery`; [ $? -eq 0 ]   && systemctl set-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION=$VAR || exit 1 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 8161 ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c systemctl unset-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 8174 (mariadbd)
   Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..."
   CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service
           └─8174 /usr/sbin/mariadbd

Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] InnoDB: File './ibtmp1' size is now 12.000MiB.
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] InnoDB: log sequence number 45505; transaction id 14
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] Plugin 'FEEDBACK' is disabled.
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] InnoDB: Loading buffer pool(s) from /var/lib/mysql/ib_buffer_pool
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] Server socket created on IP: ''.
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] Server socket created on IP: '::'.
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] InnoDB: Buffer pool(s) load completed at 220713 22:23:07
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: 2022-07-13 22:23:07 0 [Note] /usr/sbin/mariadbd: ready for connections.
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io mariadbd[8174]: Version: '10.8.3-MariaDB'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  MariaDB Server
Jul 13 22:23:07 centos7.example.io systemd[1]: Started MariaDB 10.8.3 database server.

Client version checking with mariadb command:

$ mariadb -V
mariadb  Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.8.3-MariaDB, for Linux (x86_64) using readline 5.1

Use the mariadb-secure-installation script to secure your MariaDB database server

$ sudo mariadb-secure-installation


In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): <ENTER>
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] y
Enabled successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] y
New password: <INPUT-PASSWORD>
Re-enter new password: <CONFIRM-PASSWORD>
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

Access to MariaDB shell should only be possible with a password

$ mysql -u root
ERROR 1698 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost'

$ mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 14
Server version: 10.8.3-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> SELECT VERSION ();
| VERSION ()     |
| 10.8.3-MariaDB |
1 row in set (0.000 sec)

Step 4) Create a test database/user in MariaDB

We can create a test database with the command below:

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE mydb;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.001 sec)

Check if the database has been created by showing all available databases.

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW DATABASES;
| Database           |
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
| mydb               |
5 rows in set (0.000 sec)

If this setup process progressed as anticipated you should have MariaDB 10.8 installed and running on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 server or Desktop machine. If you encounter any issues let us know in the comments section.

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